ICSA's Corporate Governance Handbook

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The Board has 15 members, including nine regional trustees, one for each of nine regional groups of the member universities, and four at-large trustees. The Challenge Johannesburg (Sandton), Cape Town, Durban, Port Elizabeth, Pretoria – South Africa This course will be beneficial for any manager wishing to enhance the corporate governance of their company (public or SOE). Do local governments adopt their own budgets in Zimbabwe? 3. Third, the board stops this progression into detail at the point where it is willing to accept any reasonable interpretation of the words thus far used.

Pages: 0

Publisher: ICSA Publishing; 3rd edition (September 1, 2013)

ISBN: B00EXQ751O

Starcher was the former president and chief executive officer of Health Management Associates (HMA) a publicly traded, $6 billion net revenue, integrated acute care delivery system with 71 hospitals across 15 states in the US , e.g. www.dolphinjourneys.com. The Board also fills vacancies in existing or new director positions based on the recommendation of the Governance and Nominating Committee. The Governance and Nominating Committee will also consider candidates recommended by shareholders in accordance with the procedures established by such committee from time to time ref.: http://www.dolphinjourneys.com/freebooks/understanding-risk-management-and-compliance-what-is-different-after-monday-june-15-2015. Leadership skills are based on leadership behaviour. Skills alone do not make leaders - style and behaviour do. If you are interested in leadership training and development - start with leadership behaviour. The growing awareness and demand for idealist principles in leadership are increasing the emphasis (in terms of leadership characteristics) on business ethics, corporate responsibility, emotional maturity, personal integrity, and what is popularly now known as the 'triple bottom line' (abbreviated to TBL or 3BL, representing 'profit, people, planet') download online. KC Heihrich-8öckihg-SIr. 6-8, 66121 Saarbrückeh, Cermahy Phohe +49 681 3720-310, Fax +49 681 3720-3109 Email: ih!o@lap-publishihg.com PrihIed ih Ihe U. K. by (see lasI page) I5ßN: 978-3-8473-7534-0 CopyrighI © 2012 by Ihe auIhor ahd LAP LAM8ER1 Academic Publishihg CmbH & Co. Saarbrückeh 2012 i AUTHORS: Maxwell Constantine Chando Musingafi Master of Development & Management (NWU: 2008) Master of Business Administration (ZOU: 2005) Bachelor of Science (Honours) Politics & Administration (UZ: 1991) Bachelor of Business Administration (IMM: 2004) Higher Diploma in Human Resource Management (IPMZ: 2006) Diploma in Personnel Management (IPMZ: 1999) Diploma in Marketing Management (IMM: 2001) Emmanuel Dumbu Master of Business Administration (ZOU: 2005) Bachelor of Administration (Economics) (UNISA) Certificate in Education (UZ) ii Patrick Chadamoyo Master of Educational Psychology (UZ) Bachelor of Educational Psychology (UZ) Certificate in Education (UZ) iii TABLE OF CONTENTS TABLE OF CONTENTS ................................................................................................... iii MODULE OVERVIEW .................................................................................................... ix UNIT 1 INTRODUCTION TO PUBLIC MANAGEMENT AND GOVERNANCE .. 1 1.0 Introduction ................................................................................................................... 1 1.1 Objectives ..................................................................................................................... 2 1.2 Public Management and Governance: A Conceptual Framework.......................... 2 Activity 1.1 ..................................................................................................................... 6 1.3 The Traditional View of Governance and Community Leadership........................ 6 1.4 The Contemporary View of Governance and Community Leadership .................. 9 Activity 1.2 ................................................................................................................... 14 1.5 Social Capital and Community Governance ............................................................... 14 Activity 1.3 ................................................................................................................... 15 1.6 Summary ..................................................................................................................... 16 References ......................................................................................................................... 17 UNIT 2 LEADERSHIP THEORIES AND THE CONCEPT OF COMMUNITY LEADERSHIP .................................................................................................................. 19 2.0 Introduction ................................................................................................................. 19 2.1 Objectives ................................................................................................................... 20 2.2 Defining Leadership.................................................................................................... 20 2.2.1 Definition of a leader ........................................................................................... 20 2.2.2 Leadership ............................................................................................................ 21 2.2.3 Distinction between Headship and Leadership .................................................... 21 2.2.4 Characteristics of leaders ..................................................................................... 22 2.2.5 Types of leaders by paths to leadership ............................................................... 23 2.2.6 Types of leaders by visibility, legitimacy and scope of Influence ................. 24 2.2.7 Types of leaders by orientation ...................................................................... 24 2.2.8 Types of leaders by professionalism .............................................................. 25 Activity 2.1 ................................................................................................................... 26 2.3 Leadership versus Management .................................................................................. 26 2.4 Male versus Female Leadership .................................................................................. 28 2.5 Traditional Leadership ................................................................................................ 28 2.6 Community Leadership ............................................................................................... 29 2.7 Active Citizenship and Community Leadership ......................................................... 30 2.8 Community Involvement and Participation ................................................................ 31 Activity 2.2 ................................................................................................................... 31 2.9 Leadership Theories .................................................................................................... 32 2.9.1 The trait theory ..................................................................................................... 32 2.9.2 The style and behavioural theories ...................................................................... 32 2.9.3 Situational and contingency theories ................................................................... 34 2.9.5 Transactional theory............................................................................................. 35 2.9.6 Transformational theory....................................................................................... 35 2.10 Community Leadership and Power Dynamics ......................................................... 35 2.10.1 Sources of power................................................................................................ 36 Activity 2.3 ................................................................................................................... 37 2.7 Summary ..................................................................................................................... 37 iv References ......................................................................................................................... 38 UNIT 3 LOCAL GOVERNANCE AND THE DECENTRALISATION CONCEPT 39 3.0 Introduction ................................................................................................................. 39 3.1 Objectives ................................................................................................................... 40 3.2 Local Government and Grassroots Communities ....................................................... 40 Activity 3.1 ................................................................................................................... 41 3.3 Decentralisation .......................................................................................................... 41 Activity 3.2 ................................................................................................................... 44 3.4 Involvement and Participation .................................................................................... 44 3.5 Gender Mainstreaming................................................................................................ 45 3.6 Capacity Building and Empowerment ........................................................................ 47 Activity 3.3 ................................................................................................................... 47 3.7 Summary ..................................................................................................................... 48 References ......................................................................................................................... 49 UNIT 4 LOCAL GOVERNANCE FINANCING AND RESOURCE MOBILISATION IN ZIMBABWE .................................................................................. 51 4.0 Introduction ................................................................................................................. 51 4.1 Objectives ................................................................................................................... 52 4.2 Financing Activities in Local Authorities ................................................................... 52 Activity 4.1 ................................................................................................................... 56 4.3 Sources of Funding of Local Authorities .................................................................... 56 Activity 4.2 ................................................................................................................... 58 4.4 The Main Expenditure Drivers ................................................................................... 58 4.5 Do Local Governments Adopt their own Budgets? .................................................... 59 Activity 4.3 ................................................................................................................... 61 4.6 Summary ..................................................................................................................... 61 References ......................................................................................................................... 62 UNIT 5 ENGAGING NON-STATE ACTORS IN GOVERNANCE......................... 63 5.0 Introduction ................................................................................................................. 63 5.1 Objectives ................................................................................................................... 64 5.2 What is Civil Society? ................................................................................................ 64 5.3 The State and Civil Society: Evolving Relationships ................................................. 64 5.4 Institutional Values for Government-Civil Society Engagement ......................... 67 Activity 5.1 ................................................................................................................... 69 5.5 Regulatory Systems for Government-Civil Society Engagement ........................ 70 5.6 Examples of Government-Civil Society Engagement on the Policy Task ........... 71 5.6.1 Poverty Reduction Strategies Programmes .......................................................... 71 5.6.2 Participatory budgeting ........................................................................................ 71 5.6.3 Community governance model ............................................................................ 72 5.7 A Framework for Institutionalising Engaged Governance ................................... 72 5.7.1 The engaged governance framework ................................................................... 72 5.7.2 Network governance ............................................................................................ 74 5.7.3 Deliberative democracy ....................................................................................... 74 5.8 Engaged Governance: An Integrative Framework ..................................................... 75 5.8.1 Participation: Representation and inclusion......................................................... 75 5.8.2 People-centred policy ........................................................................................... 76 v 5.8.3 Pro-poor policy .................................................................................................... 77 5.8.4 Partnership ........................................................................................................... 78 Activity 5.2 ................................................................................................................... 78 5.9 Civil Society Contributions to Democratic Governance ...................................... 78 5.9.1 Civic participation and parliamentary development ............................................ 79 5.9.2 Civil society and political parties ......................................................................... 80 5.9.3 Ensuring state transparency and accountability ................................................... 81 5.9.4 Civil society`s role in communication, inIormation dissemination and awareness building ........................................................................................................ 82 Activity 5.3 ................................................................................................................... 84 5.10 Addressing Economic and Human Development Challenges .............................. 85 5.10.1 Influencing policy debates and policy formulation ........................................... 85 5.10.2 Providing basic social services .......................................................................... 86 5.11 Limitations and challenges of civil society ........................................................... 87 5.12 The private sector ...................................................................................................... 89 5.12.1 Private-sector contributions ............................................................................... 90 5.12.2 Constraints to private-sector development in developing countries............... 92 5.12.3 Public-private partnership .................................................................................. 93 5.13 External Development Partners ................................................................................ 93 Activity 5.4 ................................................................................................................... 95 5.14 Summary ................................................................................................................... 96 References ......................................................................................................................... 97 UNIT 6 ENGAGING YOUTH AND WOMEN IN COMMUNITY GOVERNANCE .. 99 8.0 Introduction ................................................................................................................. 99 6.1 Objectives ................................................................................................................. 100 6.2 Defining Youth ......................................................................................................... 100 6.2.1 Concepts definitions........................................................................................... 101 6.3 Youth and Governance in Africa .............................................................................. 102 6.3.1 Youth and conflict in Africa .............................................................................. 102 6.3.2 Youth and education in Africa ........................................................................... 102 6.3.3 Youth and unemployment in Africa .................................................................. 103 6.3.4 Health ................................................................................................................. 104 Activity 6.1 ................................................................................................................. 104 6.4 Rationale and Models for Engaging Youth .............................................................. 104 6.5 Policy and Legislative Support for Engaging Youth ................................................ 107 6.6 Limitations to Youth Participation............................................................................ 108 Activity 6.2 ................................................................................................................. 109 6.7 Women and Governance ........................................................................................... 109 6.7.1 The gender sex dichotomy ................................................................................. 110 Activity 6.3 ................................................................................................................. 112 6.7.2 Gender analysis and gender mainstreaming ...................................................... 113 6.7.3 Enabling factors for gender mainstreaming ....................................................... 115 Activity 6.4 ................................................................................................................. 116 6.7.4 National Women`s Machineries ........................................................................ 116 6.7.3 Factors that hinder effective linkages for gender mainstreaming................. 118 Activity 6.5 ................................................................................................................. 119 vi 6.7.4 Women in national parliaments ......................................................................... 119 6.7.5 Women in local government .............................................................................. 120 Activity 6.6 ................................................................................................................. 121 6.8 Summary ................................................................................................................... 121 References ....................................................................................................................... 122 UNIT 7 COMMUNICATION, ICTS AND LOCAL KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT FOR GOVERNANCE AND COMMUNITY LEADERSHIP......... 126 7.0 Introduction ............................................................................................................... 126 7.1 Objectives ................................................................................................................. 127 7.2 What is Communication? .......................................................................................... 127 7.2.1 How communication takes place ....................................................................... 128 7.2.2 Barriers to communication ................................................................................. 131 7.2.3 Listening ............................................................................................................ 134 Activity 7.1 ................................................................................................................. 136 7.3 Information and Communication Technology .......................................................... 136 7.3.1 ICTs in community development....................................................................... 137 7.3.2 Barriers, constraints and challenges facing ICT adoption in developing countries communities ................................................................................................ 138 Activity 7.2 ................................................................................................................. 140 7.4 Knowledge Management .................................................................................... 141 7.4.1 Indigenous and grassroots knowledge ............................................................... 142 Activity 7.3 ................................................................................................................. 144 7.5 Summary ................................................................................................................... 144 References ....................................................................................................................... 145 UNIT 8 THE CONCEPT OF COMMUNITY-BASED NATURAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT (CBNRM).......................................................................................... 146 8.0 Introduction ............................................................................................................... 146 8.1 Objectives ................................................................................................................. 147 8.2 Background to CBNRM ........................................................................................... 147 8.3 Definition of Terms................................................................................................... 148 8.3.1 What is CBNRM? .................................................................................................. 148 Activity 8.1 ................................................................................................................. 152 8.4 Principles Guiding CBNRM ..................................................................................... 152 Activity 8.2 ................................................................................................................. 153 8.5 The Importance of CBNRM to Local Communities................................................. 153 Activity 8.3 ................................................................................................................. 155 8.6 Challenges and Opportunities of CBNRM ............................................................... 155 Activity 8.4 ................................................................................................................. 156 8.7 Empowering and Supporting Vibrant CBNRM Programmes ............................ 156 8.7.1 Providing economic incentives and ownership at community level ............ 157 8.7.2 Promoting poverty reduction at local levels ...................................................... 157 8.7.3 Providing external technical and financial help ................................................. 157 8.7.4 Supporting resource conservation ...................................................................... 158 8.7.5 Providing regular monitoring ............................................................................. 158 8.8 Experiences oI CBO`s in CBNRM in Zimbabwe ..................................................... 159 8.8.1 The characteristics of a CBO ............................................................................. 160 vii 8.8.2 The SAFIRE MITI Programme ......................................................................... 161 8.8.2.1 Objectives of the MITI Programme ............................................................ 161 8.8.2.2 Challenges Met in the MITI Programme .................................................... 162 Activity 8.5 ................................................................................................................. 163 8.8.3 A Case Study: Mahenye CAMPFIRE................................................................ 163 8.8.3.1 Benefits of the CAMPFIRE Project to the Mahenye Community.............. 164 8.8.3.2 Factors that have contributed to the success of the Mahenye CAMPFIRE Project 165 5.8.3.3 Challenges facing Mahenye CAMPFIRE Project....................................... 166 Activity 5.6 ................................................................................................................. 167 5.9 Summary ................................................................................................................... 168 References ....................................................................................................................... 169 UNIT 9 RULE OF LAW, HUMAN RIGHTS AND ACCESS TO JUSTICE .......... 171 9.0 Introduction ............................................................................................................... 171 9.1 Objectives ................................................................................................................. 172 9.2 Human Rights, Rule of Law and Justice ................................................................... 172 9.3 The African Human Rights Framework ................................................................... 173 Activity 9.1 ................................................................................................................. 174 9.4 The State of Human Rights and Rule of Law in Africa ............................................ 174 9.4.1 National constitutions and laws ......................................................................... 174 9.4.2 Violations by law enforcement agencies ........................................................... 175 9.4.3 Civil and political rights ..................................................................................... 176 9.4.4 Economic, social and cultural rights .................................................................. 177 9.4.5 Equal access to justice ....................................................................................... 177 9.4.6 Gender equality and women`s rights ................................................................. 177 Activity 9.2 ................................................................................................................. 178 9.5 Institutional Mechanisms for Safeguarding and Enforcing Human Rights ........ 178 9.5.1 National human rights enforcement mechanisms .............................................. 178 9.5.2 The role of civil society organisations ............................................................... 180 9.5.3 Human rights commissions ................................................................................ 181 9.5.4 Effectiveness of the judiciary ............................................................................. 182 9.5.5 Monitoring of human rights ............................................................................... 183 Activity 9.3 ................................................................................................................. 183 9.6 Summary ................................................................................................................... 183 References ....................................................................................................................... 185 UNIT 10 GLOBAL GOVERNANCE AND DEVELOPING COUNTRIES.............. 186 10.0 Introduction ............................................................................................................. 186 10.1 Objectives ............................................................................................................... 187 10.2 Global Governance ................................................................................................. 187 10.3 Global Development Challenges for Poor Countries .............................................. 187 10.3.1 Global disparities ............................................................................................. 188 10.3.2 Trade barriers and distortions .......................................................................... 188 10.3.3 Flow of financial and human resources ........................................................... 189 10.3.4 Debt burden and debt relief.............................................................................. 190 10.3.5 HIV/AIDS and global governance ................................................................... 190 10.3.6 Armed conflict ................................................................................................. 191 viii 10.3.7 Global environmental issues ............................................................................ 191 10.3.8 Global bads` .................................................................................................... 192 Activity 10.1 ............................................................................................................... 193 10.4 Global Governance Structure and Developing Countries ................................... 193 10.4.1 Unfavourable rules and insufficient representation ......................................... 193 10.4.2 Ineffective participation ................................................................................... 194 10.5 Restructuring Global Governance........................................................................... 195 10.5,1 New perspectives ............................................................................................. 196 10.5.2 Renewed strategies........................................................................................... 197 10.5.3 Trade and market access .................................................................................. 197 10.5.4 Resource mobilisation ...................................................................................... 198 10.5.5 Migration and brain drain ................................................................................ 198 10.5.6 Global environmental concerns ....................................................................... 199 10.5.7 Inter-country consortium for transnational highways for landlocked countries 200 Activity 10.2 ............................................................................................................... 201 10.6 Regional Migration Framework .............................................................................. 202 10.7 Regional and Sub-regional Common Standards ..................................................... 203 10.8 Institutional Reforms .............................................................................................. 203 10.8.1 Increased engagement with civil society ......................................................... 203 10.8.2 Sub-regional legal aid centre for trade negotiations ........................................ 204 10.8.3 Reforms in Bretton Woods institutions............................................................ 205 Activity 10.3 ............................................................................................................... 206 10.9 Summary ................................................................................................................. 206 References ....................................................................................................................... 207 UNIT 11 MINISTER`S VIEWS ON LOCAL GOVERNANCE AND COMMUNITY LEADERSHIP DEVELOPMENT IN ZIMBABWE...................................................... 208 11.0 INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................. 208 11.1 Learning objectives ................................................................................................. 209 11.2 Dr download online.
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